Aurangzebawan's Weblog

April 8, 2009

Speech of 11 August 1947 of Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah in the Constituent Assembly

Filed under: Democracy — aurangzebawan @ 8:47 am

Mr. Jinnah’s presidential address to the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan
August 11, 1947

Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen!

I cordially thank you, with the utmost sincerity, for the honour you have conferred upon me – the greatest honour that is possible to confer – by electing me as your first President. I also thank those leaders who have spoken in appreciation of my services and their personal references to me. I sincerely hope that with your support and your co-operation we shall make this Constituent Assembly an example to the world. The Constituent Assembly has got two main functions to perform. The first is the very onerous and responsible task of framing the future constitution of Pakistan and the second of functioning as a full and complete sovereign body as the Federal Legislature of Pakistan. We have to do the best we can in adopting a provisional constitution for the Federal Legislature of Pakistan. You know really that not only we ourselves are wondering but, I think, the whole world is wondering at this unprecedented cyclonic revolution which has brought about the clan of creating and establishing two independent sovereign Dominions in this sub-continent. As it is, it has been unprecedented; there is no parallel in the history of the world. This mighty sub-continent with all kinds of inhabitants has been brought under a plan which is titanic, unknown, unparalleled. And what is very important with regards to it is that we have achieved it peacefully and by means of an evolution of the greatest possible character.

Dealing with our first function in this Assembly, I cannot make any well-considered pronouncement at this moment, but I shall say a few things as they occur to me. The first and the foremost thing that I would like to emphasize is this: remember that you are now a sovereign legislative body and you have got all the powers. It, therefore, places on you the gravest responsibility as to how you should take your decisions. The first observation that I would like to make is this: You will no doubt agree with me that the first duty of a government is to maintain law and order, so that the life, property and religious beliefs of its subjects are fully protected by the State.

The second thing that occurs to me is this: One of the biggest curses from which India is suffering – I do not say that other countries are free from it, but, I think our condition is much worse – is bribery and corruption. That really is a poison. We must put that down with an iron hand and I hope that you will take adequate measures as soon as it is possible for this Assembly to do so.

Black-marketing is another curse. Well, I know that black marketers are frequently caught and punished. Judicial sentences are passed or sometimes fines only are imposed. Now you have to tackle this monster, which today is a colossal crime against society, in our distressed conditions, when we constantly face shortage of food and other essential commodities of life. A citizen who does black-marketing commits, I think, a greater crime than the biggest and most grievous of crimes. These blackmarketeers are really knowing, intelligent and ordinarily responsible people, and when they indulge in black-marketing, I think they ought to be very severely punished, because the entire system of control and regulation of foodstuffs and essential commodities, and cause wholesale starvation and want and even death.

The next thing that strikes me is this: Here again it is a legacy which has been passed on to us. Along with many other things, good and bad, has arrived this great evil, the evil of nepotism and jobbery. I want to make it quite clear that I shall never tolerate any kind of jobbery, nepotism or any influence directly or indirectly brought to bear upon me. Whenever I will find that such a practice is in vogue or is continuing anywhere, low or high, I shall certainly not countenance it.
I know there are people who do not quite agree with the division of India and the partition of the Punjab and Bengal. Much has been said against it, but now that it has been accepted, it is the duty of everyone of us to loyally abide by it and honourably act according to the agreement which is now final and binding on all. But you must remember, as I have said, that this mighty revolution that has taken place is unprecedented. One can quite understand the feeling that exists between the two communities wherever one community is in majority and the other is in minority. But the question is, whether it was possible or practicable to act otherwise than what has been done, A division had to take place. On both sides, in Hindustan and Pakistan, there are sections of people who may not agree with it, who may not like it, but in my judgement there was no other solution and I am sure future history will record is verdict in favour of it. And what is more, it will be proved by actual experience as we go on that was the only solution of India’s constitutional problem. Any idea of a united India could never have worked and in my judgement it would have led us to terrific disaster. Maybe that view is correct; maybe it is not; that remains to be seen. All the same, in this division it was impossible to avoid the question of minorities being in one Dominion or the other. Now that was unavoidable. There is no other solution. Now what shall we do? Now, if we want to make this great State of Pakistan happy and prosperous, we should wholly and solely concentrate on the well-being of the people, and especially of the masses and the poor. If you will work in co-operation, forgetting the past, burying the hatchet, you are bound to succeed. If you change your past and work together in a spirit that everyone of you, no matter to what community he belongs, no matter what relations he had with you in the past, no matter what is his colour, caste or creed, is first, second and last a citizen of this State with equal rights, privileges, and obligations, there will be on end to the progress you will make.
I cannot emphasize it too much. We should begin to work in that spirit and in course of time all these angularities of the majority and minority communities, the Hindu community and the Muslim community, because even as regards Muslims you have Pathans, Punjabis, Shias, Sunnis and so on, and among the Hindus you have Brahmins, Vashnavas, Khatris, also Bengalis, Madrasis and so on, will vanish. Indeed if you ask me, this has been the biggest hindrance in the way of India to attain the freedom and independence and but for this we would have been free people long long ago. No power can hold another nation, and specially a nation of 400 million souls in subjection; nobody could have conquered you, and even if it had happened, nobody could have continued its hold on you for any length of time, but for this. Therefore, we must learn a lesson from this. You are free; you are free to go to your temples, you are free to go to your mosques or to any other place or worship in this State of Pakistan. You may belong to any religion or caste or creed that has nothing to do with the business of the State. As you know, history shows that in England, conditions, some time ago, were much worse than those prevailing in India today. The Roman Catholics and the Protestants persecuted each other. Even now there are some States in existence where there are discriminations made and bars imposed against a particular class. Thank God, we are not starting in those days. We are starting in the days where there is no discrimination, no distinction between one community and another, no discrimination between one caste or creed and another. We are starting with this fundamental principle that we are all citizens and equal citizens of one State. The people of England in course of time had to face the realities of the situation and had to discharge the responsibilities and burdens placed upon them by the government of their country and they went through that fire step by step. Today, you might say with justice that Roman Catholics and Protestants do not exist; what exists now is that every man is a citizen, an equal citizen of Great Britain and they are all members of the Nation.

Now I think we should keep that in front of us as our ideal and you will find that in course of time Hindus would cease to be Hindus and Muslims would cease to be Muslims, not in the religious sense, because that is the personal faith of each individual, but in the political sense as citizens of the State.

Well, gentlemen, I do not wish to take up any more of your time and thank you again for the honour you have done to me. I shall always be guided by the principles of justice and fairplay without any, as is put in the political language, prejudice or ill-will, in other words, partiality or favouritism. My guiding principle will be justice and complete impartiality, and I am sure that with your support and co-operation, I can look forward to Pakistan becoming one of the greatest nations of the world.

I have received a message from the United States of America addressed to me. It reads:
I have the honour to communicate to you, in Your Excellency’s capacity as President of the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan, the following message which I have just received from the Secretary of State of the United States:
On the occasion of the first meeting of the Constituent Assembly for Pakistan, I extend to you and to the members of the Assembly, the best wishes of the Government and the people of the United States for the successful conclusion of the great work you are about to undertake.

Source: Dawn, Independence Day Supplement, August 14, 1999.
Transcribed from printed copy by Shehzaad Nakhoda

Links: Constitution of Pakistan | Legislation |

This post was submitted by Ghulam Mustafa Lakho.


US will pay the price for Cornering Pakistan

Filed under: Politics — aurangzebawan @ 8:26 am

President Obama has said that Al-Qaeda has strongholds in Tribal Areas of Pakistan and from there they are planning to attack U.S.. He also mentioned that the U.S. plans to expand its ‘war on terror’ inside Pakistan. This statement of Obama coincided with another statement and that, from terrorist number one. No it’s not Osama! Current terrorist number one is Baitullah Mehsud. Mehsud is based in Tribal areas of Pakistan.

Different media groups reported that Mehsud while talking to them via cell phone, warned that he “will attack the White House’. If you are shocked or frightened by his statement needn’t be. Just pause for a moment and think how Mehsud hiding somewhere in remote Tribal areas of Pakistan is able to talk to newsmen via cell phone? And why are the CIA or other ally agencies unable to find his location, using his coordinates with their sophisticated tracking devices? What about the fine timing of this home run from Mehsud? Just when the U.S. and its allies are cornering Pakistan and gearing up to expand war on terror inside Pakistan, Mehsud comes up with a statement that is really damaging for Pakistan!

Of course there was another U.S. drone attack in Orakzai agency of the Tribal areas of Pakistan and some innocent people were killed but for some reasons unknown to anyone, the U.S. drone handlers weren’t able to target Osama or Mehsud. It may have something to do with the fact that they really don’t even know where Osama is (or if he is even alive). All we know is that Al-Qaeda is able to send video/audio tapes to Aljazeera based in Qatar. Hold on one minute – isn’t Qatar the same place where CENTCOM is located with a billion dollar complex? Yes folks, it’s the same place but somehow Al-Qaeda is able to bypass their sophisticated electronics and get their video tapes broadcast on Aljazeera.

This is just too much for even the most naïve political reader and news follower to accept. All the truth requires in this case is good, old fashioned common sense. Any common soul can ponder on the fact that there is something fishy going on here – not just fishy but also sinister. And please don’t give place to the tired old words “conspiracy theory”. They no longer work. If it walks like duck and quacks like a duck … you know the rest. This is a matter of the U.S. working to drive its old ally, Pakistan, into a corner. Pakistan was the country that allowed U.S. to station its U-2 spy plane in Peshawar, Pakistan to spy on Soviet Russia. Pakistan was the country that started back channel diplomacy between China and U.S., something that Bill Clinton had to acknowledge in 2000 when he was in Pakistan for a lengthy five hour tour. (This shows the importance U.S. gave to Pakistan between 1989 and September 10th 2001. Clinton spent 5 days in India, Pakistan’s arch nemesis). Pakistan was the country that the CIA turned to when they fought the Soviets, of course the U.S., themselves, didn’t fight. They asked ISI to train, equip and make battle plans for the ‘mujahedeen’, against Soviets. Once the Soviets got their Vietnam, U.S. simply moved away, and slapped sanctions on Pakistan for continuing its nuclear program. As Hugo Chavez once said, “The U.S. disposes of its allies like used condoms.” It’s ok for U.S., UK, China, France, Russia, India and Israel to have nuclear weapons but it’s not ok for Pakistan or Iran to have nukes.

The point is that after using Pakistan conveniently for the last forty years or more, the time has now come for the U.S. to ditch Pakistan completely. Hence the U.S. has given Pakistan the option to tow its line completely or “the stick” – to accept responsiblity for what happens in future. Hint-hint, is another 9/11 in the making somewhere in West? The U.S. is pressurizing the Pakistan Army and ISI to throw aside Pakistan’s national interests and blindly do its dirty work inside their own country and in the region. In addition, ignore for a moment the U.S. expansion of war into Pakistan. It gets better. The U.S. has advised the Pakistan Army to disclaim India as enemy number one, not to focus on India in the future and to change its defense policy. How can anyone in their right mind expect the Pakistan Army and ISI to accept U.S. demands, when they have concrete evidence of Indian support from Afghanistan for terrorist groups inside Pakistan? India, in clear violation of 1962 Indus River Water Treaty, has stopped water flow from Kashmir (Chenab River), into Pakistan causing severe water crisis, which will increase sharply in the coming dry months. How can the U.S. expect Pakistan Army and ISI to shove these issues aside?

Veteran journalist and Pakistan expert, Eric Margolis has penned some telling lines in his new article, Is Pakistan Really Double Dealing? –

“Pakistan’s premier intelligence agency, Inter-Service Intelligence (ISI), has been secretly aiding Taliban and its allies in both Afghanistan and Pakistan. So charged the ‘New York Times’ in a front-page story last week that was clearly planted by the Obama administration. In 2003, the ‘NY Times’ severely damaged its once stellar reputation by serving as a primary conduit for fake war propaganda put out by the Bush administration over Iraq. The ‘Times’ is now beating the war drums for more U.S. military operations against Pakistan”.

Margolis continues,

“ISI is not playing a double game, as Washington charges, but simply assuring Pakistan’s strategic and political interests in the region. Anyway, who are the Americans, who supplied Taliban with millions in aid until four month before 9/11, to criticize Pakistan for its choice of friends.”

This Pakistani political analyst expects the new Obama plan to be worse than that of Bush, and predict more violence inside Pakistan.

“Pakistan would be reduced to a battlefield if our leadership accedes to Obama’s strategy,” commented Rustam Shah Mohmand, former interior secretary, former ambassador to Afghanistan and a top security expert.

Former Fata secretary Brig (retd) Mehmud Shah is of the view these are testing times for political as well as military leaders, who are expected to defend Pakistan against the sinister Zionist conspiracy to destabilize and denuclearize Pakistan.

The U.S. is dealing with Pakistan on three different levels.
The first is their secret dealing with President Zardari and his special advisors. Just recently Zardari was in Dubai meeting with Richard Holbrooke, and Zalmay Khalilzad under a media blackout. Today, the meeting came to light on Gulf News.
The second is their relationship with the central government of Pakistan.
The third is the relationship with Pakistan army and the ISI.

It’s the third tier that is most important and that’s where the frustration is centered at the moment for the U.S.. The Pakistan Army and ISI are simply not willing to go against Pakistan’s national interest as Zardari and his government is doing at the moment.

The U.S. would like to expand its war into Pakistan’s largest province, Balochistan. Balochistan is strategically located East of Iran and to the South of Afghanistan. It has a port at Gwadar that was built by China. Gwadar lies at the opening of Strait of Hurmoz. Balochistan has huge quantities of natural gas, and unexplored oil reserves. More importantly U.S. wants to control the port of Gwadar, and eventually start their dream oil pipeline from Central Asia, through Afghanistan into Balochistan and Gwadar.

Expanding the war into Pakistan will further inflame the public opinion against U.S. foreign policy. The weak Pakistan government will be under more pressure to change its policy towards the “war on terror”. Already there is a huge difference between public opinion on the war on terror and Zardari’s views. The U.S. media has painted a picture that extremist and conservative parties or groups in Pakistan are against U.S. foreign policy and that they represent a small minority of Pakistanis. This is not the case. The vast majority of the Pakistani population is strongly opposed to the “war on terror”. President Obama says on television that the U.S. will continue drone attacks in Pakistan and continue to expand “our” war on terror” into Pakistan territory. He says, “but I want to the people of Pakistan to know we are not the enemy of the Pakistan nation”.

Perhaps the 1% elite class, dual passport holders (mostly U.S., UK, Canada) in Pakistan will cooperate with the Obama regime, but the 99% people of Pakistan will simply not accept this rhetoric. The 600,000 Pakistani troops and 500,000 reservists are from that 99% majority and not from the 1% elite. That is the point that the policy makers in the U.S. think tanks can’t seem to understand. There are many experts and authors writing reports on Pakistan who have never visited troubled areas here and who have no interaction with the people. Last year, under pressure from the U.S. military chiefs and the Bush regime, the Pakistan government replaced the head of the ISI and gave its command to General Ahmed Pasha. Sadly for the U.S., Pasha has not delivered as the U.S. expected. I hope they didn’t select Pasha for the post just based on his name, because other than his name he shares nothing with obedient the Pashas of the dying Ottoman Empire. (Pasha is actually a title given by Ottoman Empire to people who were favorites of the ruling elite).

After the “who dunnit” terrorist attack at the Lahore police training center, Pakistan is under severe pressure from the U.S. and its allies for ‘doing more’ against terrorism in Pakistan. Nawaz, on the other hand, is chumming up to the U.S. more than ever. He will visit the U.S. embassy in Islamabad next week to discuss future role that U.S. might have for him. As I mentioned previously in my dispatches, Nawaz is close to Clinton family.

The million dollar question to think about is what happens when the U.S. corners Pakistan? Will Pakistan go down like Iraq, ravaged with civil wars, daily bombings, and extreme sectarian divide? Pakistan has at least 170 million people to begin with, and nuclear weapons. Will Pakistan just let go of its nuclear weapons? Will the Army sit in barracks and watch the country plunge into civil war? What will become of the people – 170 million strong? Another question remains about whether the U.S. will send in ground troops if Pakistan Army and ISI refuse to fight “terrorists” in tribal areas of Pakistan. Is Obama ready to spend billions more in fighting the “war on terror”? Will we see India sending its troops into Afghanistan to support U.S. and NATO troops? The basic rule of nature is that there is an equal and opposite reaction to every action. The Pakistan Army and ISI have no doubt been a long ally of Pentagon and the CIA. But when the existence of ISI and Pakistan Army itself is under threat, they just might decide to change their alliances. Will Pakistan Army start supporting Taliban in Afghanistan again in order to divert the U.S. war expansion from Pakistan back into Afghanistan? Uncle Sam must remember that China too has a big stake in Pakistan. The Pakistan Army has the same level of strategic partnership with its Chinese counterpart as they have with the Americans. The only difference is that there are no secrets between China and Pakistan. According to Sun Tzu, the art of war is to defeat your enemy without fighting! This is surely something that the U.S. should remember and the fact that no invading army has ever returned victorious from Afghanistan. Hence this surge theory of Obama is rubbish to say the least. “Only fools rush in.”